Our approach to sustainability: The Blue Economy Principles

10 years. 100 innovations. 100 million jobs.

At Scenario Sciences Sweden our approach to sustainability is influenced by The Blue Economy and the work of the  Zero Emissions Research and Initiatives (ZERI) foundation. The Blue Economy is the ZERI philosophy in action.

What is The Blue Economy?

Do sustainable business models catch your interest? Then perhaps the Blue Economy is something for you. 

The Blue Economy report was originally released as a report to the Club of Rome and was created in collaboration with the United Nations Environment Program. The report identified a new growth strategy based on sustainable innovation and zero emissions principles. It also demonstrated that success was possible by listing 100 innovations and how they could create new job and business opportunities within 10 years.

The Blue Economy is the ZERI philosophy in action.
The Blue Economy cases were identified and studied by the Zero Emissions Research and Initiatives (ZERI) foundation many years before the Blue Economy report was released. Several of them can be found in Gunter Pauli's book Upsizing: The Road to Zero Emissions, published more than 10 years before The Blue Economy report. 

The Blue Economy Principles are a distillate of the experiences and lessons from hundreds of successful sustainable enterprises. In essence, they are about creating more value with what we already have.

The Blue Economy stands out from traditional "green" or "circular" economics through its focus on integrated systems, multiple cash flows, intangible resources (culture and tradition), practical implementation, competitiveness and innovation.


10 Principles from The Blue Economy

 Click on the principle to read more about it.

Ecoliteracy/Systems Thinking - The relationships generate the system

Holistic humanism - People and the local community become the leading actors in any project. Projects must thus be planned with the human context in mind.

Everything has value - and whatever has value can have more value

Physics First - Use physics instead of chemistry and unsustainable technologies

Resilience through diversity - The opposite of silos and monoculture. Diversity embraces creativity, shares risk and creates resilience.

Open Systems and Information Flows -  Blue Economy systems are open, rather than closed-loop, so outputs can flow to other industries. This principle embraces the use of co-creative and co-evolutionary processes to stimulate innovation, growth and sustainability. A consequence of this principle is the use of Open Source sharing of information.

Autopoiesis/Autogeneration - Self-organisation, self-replication and self-direction. Autopoiesis generates interdependence and co-evolution.

Be inspired by the hundreds of opportunities all around us - Use technologies and sciences such as Permaculture, Biomimicry, 5 Kingdoms of Nature and so on.

Work with what you have/Act locally - Instead of waiting for "the right conditions", embrace the tangible and intangible resources you already have at hand. Operate within a local context, while maintaing a "glocal" approach.

Replace something with nothing - We do not like to circulate and recycle in the economy what should never have been in there in the first place.

 

Inspired by Gunter Pauli © Sara Hjalmarsson 2014

There are several options available - from Youtube videos to networking opportunities and university courses. Scroll down to watch the videos.

If you want to learn more about Blue Economy, watch our Youtube Playlist or visit:

Courses in sustainable systems design and Blue Economy are held at:

In some countries there are Blue Economy networks:

Learn more about The Blue Economy

 

Blue Economy Cases

ECOLITERACY AND SYSTEMS THINKING

Ecoliteracy is the ability to understand the basic principles of ecology and to live accordingly. One must understand how to operate in such a way as to support and cooperate with nature's ability to sustain life. It requires an understanding of such subjects as systems thinking, living networks, autopoiesis (or self-generation) and  self-maintained boundaries. It also requires an interdisciplinary application of knowledge.

 

Shifting perspective from a focus on parts to a focus on relationships

Capra and others identify the need for a shift in perspective to complement how we currently view and study the world. It is this systemic way of thinking that is a prerequisite for ecoliteracy. Fritjof Capra outlines this very well in his essay "A Science for Sustainable Living":

Living systems are integrated wholes whose properties cannot be reduced to those of smaller parts. Now, in what sense exactly is ―the whole more than the sum of its parts‖? The answer is relationships. The essential properties of a living system arise from the interactions and relationships among the parts. Systemic thinking is thinking in terms of relationships. The shift from the parts to the whole requires another shift of focus, from objects to relationships... 

...And finally, mapping relationships and studying patterns is not a quantitative but a qualitative approach. So, systemic thinking implies a shift from quantity to quality. These characteristics of systemic thinking are all just different aspects of the same shift of perception: a shift from the parts to the whole, from objects to relationships, from measuring to mapping, from contents to patterns, from quantity to quality. 

- Fritjof Capra, A Science for Sustainable Living in Systemic Design by Luigi Bistagnino 


Want to find out more about systems thinking and ecoliteracy? Start with these two books:

Thinking in Systems: A Primer by Donella Meadows (if you are only to read one book on systems theory, make it this one)

The Systems View of Life: A Unifying Vision by Fritjof Capra and Pier Luigi Luisi

 

Inspired by Gunter Pauli, © Sara Hjalmarsson 2014

RESILIENCE THROUGH DIVERSITY

 A natural ecosystem contains great diversity. There is symbiosis between kingdoms, such as in the case of mycorrhizal fungi (fungi that function in symbiosis with plant roots, making nutrients available to them), plant pollination and so on. This diversity has come about as the species co-evolved under millions of years within the boundaries of its own system. This co-evolution and diversity provides risk sharing, redundancy and innovation using the resources available within the system. 

Enterprises can also use diversity to become more competitive and resilient. It has been proven time and again that companies embracing diversity do far better than companies that do not (Google, PatagoniaSemco etc.). The willingness to co-evolve with strategic partners provides both risk-sharing and access to new innovations at a low cost. The tendency to operate in silos, standardise processes and maintain a lid on communication, on the other hand tends to be costly, risky and makes the organisation vulnerable to change.

The application of this principle goes further than the human element, however. It also encourages diversity of income streams. By implementing the Blue Economy principles, one can generate multiple cash flows. This diversity of income creates the financial resilience needed for sustainable, independent enterprises.

 

Inspired by Gunter Pauli © Sara Hjalmarsson 2014

WORK WITH WHAT YOU HAVE / ACT LOCALLY

Ultimately, this principle is about generating more value with the resources already at hand. Just as ecosystems only make use of the resources at hand, sustainable businesses must do the same. This means taking advantage of underused resources, considering your cultural resources and the full range of outputs produced. 

The principle also offers a sage piece of business advice - just get started! We often get stuck waiting for the conditions to be just right before taking action. We think that we need a certain resource, experience or knowledge to succeed, but nothing could be further from the truth. Focus on your networks and make use of what you have.

 

Local focus

Acting locally to create global impact (glocalism) is becoming more important. It is a characteristic of internationally focused initiatives and programs, such as the International Baccalaureate school system. It is also key to the Blue Economy, but with a greater focus on the local community.

Just as an eco-system is influenced and shaped by its local environment, organisations, projects and communities are influenced by their local context. This creates unique local conditions and opportunities for which a general approach is inadequate. To take advantage of these local opportunities one must be willing to increase local participation and adapt to the local context.

 

Inspired by Gunter Pauli © Sara Hjalmarsson 2014

HOLISTIC HUMANISM

The essence of this principle is that people, culture and traditions should be at the centre of every project. This is because all projects take place in a unique social, cultural, ethical and environmental context. Embracing these elements will increase your chance of success. It will also provide the means by which to make the best use of local resources.

The Systemic Design paradigm proposes that common social, cultural, ethical and biological values should be at the centre of each productive process. This means looking at all the relationships in the production process and various flows associated with them (materials, information and resources) from a human-centric point of view. This is not the same as an anthropocentric view where the human being is superior to nature. Rather, it is about viewing the human being as an integral part of the natural system to which he or she relates.

 

One of the best examples of this principle is illustrated by the Colombian reforestation project at Las Gaviotas:

http://www.zeri.org/ZERI/Reforestation.html

 

Inspired by Gunter Pauli © Sara Hjalmarsson 2014

OPEN SYSTEMS AND INFORMATION FLOWS

Natural systems are open, so that they may interact and exchange information with their environment. This openness connects the organisms within the system and makes it possible to cascade nutrients, material and energy without degrading the system. It also facilitates risk sharing, resource efficiency and co-evolutionary processes. Consequently, one solution generates multiple benefits.

The Blue Economy embodies this open structure in the values and practices of Open Source. In doing so, co-evolutionary processes are encouraged, risks are shared and resources are more efficiently used. This way, one innovation can offer multiple benefits, as in the natural system.

 

 Misconceptions

This is possibly one of the most questioned and misunderstood aspects of The Blue Economy. If the business model is open source, do you undermine the originator's ability to earn money? If the concept is not trademarked, how can you prevent people from stealing it? 

Open Source is very different from Free. Rather than being about the price tag, Open Source is about transparency and a willingness to share. It is the source material (eg. research) or "code" that is to be made freely available for review, use and development. The originator still retains copyright of an Open Source work unless it is given up through a creative commons license. This means the originator is still attributed to the work. 

Open Source Software is not always free, but often the originator(s) will release it at no cost and then charge for customisation, services and support. Some popular open source software includes the PC operating system Red Hat Linux, the commerce/ERM software Openbravo and the 3D animation software Blender

Open Source Knowledge can also be charged for through training courses, consulting services and business applications. What is charged for is the application of the knowledge, not access to it. The knowledge itself is openly shared and the originators attributed to their work. In practice, this can mean linking to the original source material or publishing your own research and source material on your website (legally, of course). The added benefit of doing so is that your brand will come across as more honest, transparent, knowledgeable and connected. 

If you want to learn more about Open Source, we recommend the Open Source resources page:

http://opensource.com/resources

 

Inspired by Gunter Pauli © Sara Hjalmarsson 2014

REPLACE SOMETHING WITH NOTHING

This principle is about eliminating blatantly unsustainable components through smart (and sometimes disruptive) innovation. 

If a component is problematic or blatantly unsustainable, do a mental experiment - ask yourself "how could this product be made to work without the problematic element?".

If cellulose and water are unsustainable components for making paper, what can one do instead? Paper will still be needed in the foreseeable future, but can it be made  in a more sustainable way? The answer is a resounding YES! Paper can be made with stone and PET bottles. What is even better is that the stone + PET production stream requires no water.

The solution does not need to be very exotic or esoteric. Even something as commonplace as Velcro embodies the "replace something with nothing" principle. In this case, you replace glue with sticky straps that use physical structure to adhere.

Can you think of how to "replace something with nothing" in your workplace?

 

Inspired by Gunter Pauli © Sara Hjalmarsson 2014

EVERYTHING HAS VALUE

This is about optimising the flow of resources between systems. In natural systems, there is no finite waste - the output from one system becomes an input for another. Optimising one's resource flow implies making all outputs useable for another industry - both those that earn you money and the ones that do not. The production process thus tends toward zero waste and the concept of waste itself starts to become superfluous.

The concept of The 5 Kingdoms of nature help provide a framework for how to go about doing this in practice. The 5 kingdoms are:

  • Animals
  • Plants
  • Fungi
  • Bacteria (prokaryotes and archae)
  • Algae (protoctista)

An understanding of how these kingdoms interact with each other (ecoliteracy) provides the foundation for the 5 ZERI design principles that guide the mapping and design of resource flows underlying innovations in Blue Economy enterprises.

 

Design principle 1. What is a waste for one species is food for another belonging to another kingdom
Generally, no one species eats its own waste by habit. Mammals may eat other mammals, but they will not normally eat the waste of other mammals. This waste product instead becomes food for other members of the animal kingdom, such as insects, that operate in collaboration with the kingdoms of bacteria, fungi and algae.

In industry this translates to cross-industry collaboration as a prerequisite for success. If an industry tries to re-use its waste, it will result in a waste of energy (entropy) or degradation of the product. This is the case of the metals industries, where used metals are re-smelted and recycled using vast amounts of energy.

For the flow of resources to work, the output of one industry must go through a completely different industry. This is done by partnering with another enterprise that can use the outputs generated by the first enterprise. An excellent example is the case of cascading brewing systems. The waste from the brewing process can be used in both fish farming and bread baking. This way, the outputs from the brewing industry become inputs for two different industries.  

In the case of agriculture, it is a matter of putting the output through a different system based on a different kingdom.

 

Design Principle 2. Whatever is a toxin to one species will be neutral or a nutrient to another species in a another kingdom

A real-life example of this phenomenon is where Oyster mushrooms (an edible gourmet mushroom) have been successfully used to clean up oil pollution. The hydrocarbons in crude oil are very harmful to members of the animal kingdom (including people), but not so, for the fungi kingdom. The otherwise toxic oil is converted into nutrients and carbohydrates by the mushroom, decontaminating the area where it is growing.

 

Design Principle 3. Pathogens are rendered inert when processed through at least 2 different kingdoms

This phenomenon is commonly harnessed in the management of human waste (faeces). Human waste contains pathogens including harmful bacteria, viruses and other parasites. It cannot be re-used without significant health risks.

On the other hand, beneficial (thermophillic and aerobic) bacteria will feed on the waste (and the pathogens) and excrete soil (or humus) as a "waste" product, which can be safely handled by humans. This is also the case when using earthworms as their digestive systems depend on bacteria doing the actual digesting.

This soil is still not very useful to us or other members of the animal kingdom, but it is a valuable source of nutrients for members of the plant and mushroom kingdoms. Now that the pathogenic components have been broken down and re-assembled through two different kingdoms, we (or another member of the animal kingdom) can now make use of the nutrients again without worrying about pathogens.

Design Principle 4. The more diverse and localised the system, the more resilient it is

 A natural ecosystem becomes well adapted to it's own context (eg. rain forests in the tropics, pine forests in more temperate climates). There is great diversity and symbiosis between kingdoms. There are multiple species of mycorrhizal fungi, many different animals and so on.

This diversity has come about as the species co-evolved under millions of years within the boundaries of its own system. The diversity provides risk sharing, redundancy and innovation. Consequently, the system is resilient to change and recovers well from crises. Forcing a species from a different system to become part of the established system causes it to degenerate and become vulnerable.

This increased vulnerability is true also for a monoculture because it lacks the diversity necessary for resilience. If it is hit with a disease or changing conditions, the entire crop may be lost. Although this is a very tangible matter for agriculture, the principle is very relevant to enterprise systems. It has been proven time and again that companies embracing diversity do far better than companies that do not (Google, Patagonia, Semco etc.). The willingness to co-evolve with strategic partners provides both risk-sharing and access to new innovations at a low cost. The tendency to operate in silos, standardise processes and maintain a lid on communication, on the other hand tends to be costly, risky and makes the organisation vulnerable to change.

 

Design Principle 5. Reduce entropy by using the five kingdoms to produce at ambient temperature and pressure

Contemporary production methods require vast amounts of energy to control temperature, pressure and other environment conditions. These methods are inefficient, resulting in significant amounts of energy being wasted or lost. This inefficiency of energy use is known as entropy. 

We can do much better than using high-entropy production methods. In nature, production is far more energy efficient, rarely requiring the addition of heat or extensive pressure. This is because natural processes make use of physics and symbiosis between different kingdoms. Key chemicals and materials are produced by the organism with inputs from its local environment (water and nutrients) and processed at the same temperature and pressure as its surroundings. Through sciences such as bioprocessing, permaculture and biomimicry, it can be done surprisingly well.

Bioprocessing

We have used bioprocessing for thousands of years to produce cultured foods and increase the shelf life of perishable goods. Some examples include the production of beer, cheeses and kimchi. Bioprocessing is also used in sewage treatment plants and in medicine, such as for the production of insulin.

The science of bioprocessing can also be used to mine metals from waste, avoiding the need for destructive mining methods and high-energy smelting. In the Blue Economy case Metals Without Mining, bacteria and water are used to extract pure metals from powdered E-waste.

Permaculture

The term permaculture was coined by Bill Mollison in the 1970s. It is about mimicking natural ecosystems in a permanently sustainable form of agriculture. Permaculture can also be used to recover arid land. At Las Gaviotas in Colombia (probably the oldest successful ZERI/Blue Economy project) the methodologies from permaculture were used to regrow several hectares of rainforest from an arid savanna.

Permaculture is a widespread practice and both training and expertise is available in many countries. To find out more about permaculture, we suggest visiting the global permaculture network website or the Permaculture institute:

Global Permaculture Network http://www.permacultureglobal.com

Permaculture institute: http://www.permaculturenews.org

An excellent review of pertinent literature can be found here.

Biomimicry

The term biomimicry was coined by Janine Benyus who outlined the science in her book. Today, Biomimicry is an academic science, that is widely implemented and has inspired a range of innovations and sustainable solutions. The common Velcro strap was designed by mimicking the hooks of the burr plant.

An excellent website for learning more about applications for biomimicry is Ask Nature:

http://www.asknature.org

 

Inspired by Gunter Pauli © Sara Hjalmarsson 2014

AUTOPOIESIS/AUTO-GENERATION

 

Natural systems are self-organising, self-reproducing and self directing (they define their own course of action). This happens because they are open systems that exchange information with an external, bounded environment. Autopoiesis occurs in ecosystems, living cells and human communities. 

 

Autopoiesis in Practice

If we integrate autopoietic tendencies in industry, (such as when designing production flows), we could improve efficiency, energy use and resource distribution. This is already happening in the digital world and has lead to cost-effective innovations with widespread benefits.

The internet may be the most obvious example of autopoiesis. Information is constantly being reproduced and organised. Social networks form and follow their own courses of action.

Another, less obvious example, is the Nordic Ensemble art form. It takes advantage of autopoiesis to make more efficient use of resources and create unique first-person experiences.

 

Inspired by Gunter Pauli © Sara Hjalmarsson 2014

PHYSICS FIRST

 This principle is about using the laws of physics to eliminate entropy and reduce the need for unsustainable chemistry, or unnecessarily complex technologies. 

 In nature, production is far more energy efficient than most of our industrial processes. Rarely is the addition of heat or extensive pressure required. This is because natural processes make use of physics and symbiotic processes between different organisms. Key chemicals and materials are produced by the organism with inputs from its local environment (water and nutrients) and processed at the same temperature and pressure as its surroundings.

Water in rivers is cleaned through the laws of physics, not through the presence of any chemical. The 2cm long Bombardier Beetle uses physics to propel steam and toxins up to 20cm away without the use of propellants. By taking advantage of the laws of thermodynamics, we can heat water and air without the need for moving parts. The list goes on.

Four Blue Economy cases that illustrate this principle includes The Power of the Vortex, Hot Water for 25 Years, Propulsion Without Gas and Greenhouses Without Heating or Irrigation.

 

 

Inspired by Gunter Pauli © Sara Hjalmarsson 2014

BE INSPIRED BY THE HUNDREDS OF OPPORTUNITIES ALL AROUND US

Nature has existed for millions of years. The organisms that exist today have adapted to thrive in the world and there is much we can learn from them and the ecosystems they are part of. The Blue Economy is about allowing ourselves to be inspired and educated by the world around us, so that we may resolve the global challenges we are currently facing.

The following four disciplines are applied within the framework of Blue Economy in order to learn from the natural world.

  • The 5 Kingdoms
  • Bioprocessing
  • Permaculture
  • Biomimicry

The 5 kingdoms

The concept of The 5 Kingdoms of nature help provide a framework for how to go about cascading resources and designing sustainable systems. The 5 kingdoms are:

  • Animals
  • Plants
  • Fungi
  • Bacteria (prokaryotes and archae)
  • Algae (protoctista)

An understanding of how these kingdoms interact with each other (ecoliteracy) provides the foundation for the 5 ZERI design principles that guide the mapping and design of resource flows underlying innovations in Blue Economy enterprises.

 

Design principle 1. What is waste for one species is food for another belonging to another kingdom
Generally, no one species eats its own waste by habit. Mammals may eat other mammals, but they will not normally eat the waste of other mammals. This waste product instead becomes food for other members of the animal kingdom, such as insects, that operate in collaboration with the kingdoms of bacteria, fungi and algae.

In industry this translates to cross-industry collaboration as a prerequisite for success. If an industry tries to re-use its waste, it will result in a waste of energy (entropy) or degradation of the product. This is the case of the metals industries, where used metals are re-smelted and recycled using vast amounts of energy.

For the flow of resources to work, the output of one industry must go through a completely different industry. This is done by partnering with another enterprise that can use the outputs generated by the first enterprise. An excellent example is the case of cascading brewing systems. The waste from the brewing process can be used in both fish farming and bread baking. This way, the outputs from the brewing industry become inputs for two different industries.  

In the case of agriculture, it is a matter of putting the output through a different system based on a different kingdom.

 

Design Principle 2. Whatever is a toxin to one species will be neutral or a nutrient to another species in a another kingdom

A real-life example of this phenomenon is where Oyster mushrooms (an edible gourmet mushroom) have been successfully used to clean up oil pollution. The hydrocarbons in crude oil are very harmful to members of the animal kingdom (including people), but not so, for the fungi kingdom. The otherwise toxic oil is converted into nutrients and carbohydrates by the mushroom, decontaminating the area where it is growing.

 

Design Principle 3. Pathogens are rendered inert when processed through at least 2 different kingdoms

This phenomenon is commonly harnessed in the management of human waste (faeces). Human waste contains pathogens including harmful bacteria, viruses and other parasites. It cannot be re-used without significant health risks.

On the other hand, beneficial (thermophillic and aerobic) bacteria will feed on the waste (and the pathogens) and excrete a "waste" product that can be safely handled by humans - soil or humus. This is also the case when using earthworms as their digestive systems depend on bacteria doing the digesting.

This soil is still not very useful to us or other members of the animal kingdom, but it is a valuable source of nutrients for members of the plant and mushroom kingdoms. Now that the pathogenic components have been broken down and re-assembled through two different kingdoms, we (or another member of the animal kingdom) can now make use of the nutrients again without worrying about pathogens.

Design Principle 4. The more diverse and localised the system, the more resilient it is

 A natural ecosystem becomes well adapted to it's own context (eg. rain forests in the tropics, pine forests in more temperate climates). There is great diversity and symbiosis between kingdoms. There are multiple species of mycorrhizal fungi, many different animals and so on.

This diversity has come about as the species co-evolved under millions of years within the boundaries of its own system. The diversity provides risk sharing, redundancy and innovation. Consequently, the system is resilient to change and recovers well from crises. Forcing a species from a different system to become part of the established system causes it to degenerate and become vulnerable.

This increased vulnerability is true also for a monoculture because it lacks the diversity necessary for resilience. If it is hit with a disease or changing conditions, the entire crop may be lost. Although this is a very tangible matter for agriculture, the principle is very relevant to enterprise systems. It has been proven time and again that companies embracing diversity do far better than companies that do not (Google, PatagoniaSemco etc.). The willingness to co-evolve with strategic partners provides both risk-sharing and access to new innovations at a low cost. The tendency to operate in silos, standardise processes and maintain a lid on communication, on the other hand tends to be costly, risky and makes the organisation vulnerable to change.

 

Design Principle 5. Reduce entropy by using the five kingdoms to produce at ambient temperature and pressure

Contemporary production methods require vast amounts of energy to control temperature, pressure and other environment conditions. These methods are inefficient, resulting in significant amounts of energy being wasted or lost. This inefficiency of energy use is known as entropy. 

We can do much better than using high-entropy production methods. In nature, production is far more energy efficient, rarely requiring the addition of heat or extensive pressure. This is because natural processes make use of physics and symbiosis between different kingdoms. Key chemicals and materials are produced by the organism with inputs from its local environment (water and nutrients) and processed at the same temperature and pressure as its surroundings. Through sciences such as bioprocessingpermaculture andbiomimicry, it can be done surprisingly well.

Bioprocessing

We have used bioprocessing for thousands of years to produce cultured foods and increase the shelf life of perishable goods. Some examples include the production of beer, cheeses and kimchi. Bioprocessing is also used in sewage treatment plants and in medicine, such as for the production of insulin.

The science of bioprocessing can also be used to mine metals from waste, avoiding the need for destructive mining methods and high-energy smelting. In the Blue Economy caseMetals Without Mining, bacteria and water are used to extract pure metals from powdered E-waste.

Permaculture

The term permaculture was coined by Bill Mollison in the 1970s. It is about mimicking natural ecosystems in a permanently sustainable form of agriculture. Permaculture can also be used to recover arid land. At Las Gaviotas in Colombia (probably the oldest successful ZERI/Blue Economy project) the methodologies from permaculture were used to regrow several hectares of rainforest from an arid savanna.

Permaculture is a widespread practice and both training and expertise is available in many countries. To find out more about permaculture, we suggest visiting the global permaculture network website or the Permaculture institute:

Global Permaculture Network http://www.permacultureglobal.com

Permaculture institute: http://www.permaculturenews.org

An excellent review of pertinent literature can be found here.

Biomimicry

The term biomimicry was coined by Janine Benyus who outlined the science in her book. Today, Biomimicry is an academic science, that is widely implemented and has inspired a range of innovations and sustainable solutions. The common Velcro strap was designed by mimicking the hooks of the burr plant.

An excellent website for learning more about applications for biomimicry is Ask Nature:

http://www.asknature.org

 

Inspired by Gunter Pauli © Sara Hjalmarsson 2014